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电池博客

2018年世界电池回顾 多国研究锂电池、氢燃料电池

来源:网络    2019-01-25 09:01    点击量:

2018年,美政府在大力推动传统能源产业发展的同时,持续加大对太阳能、核能、地热能、生物能等新能源领域的研发投入。众多新能源领域中,新型等研发成果引人注目。而日本研究池负极大容量化成功,大规模开始制氢系统投建,其他各国在新能源的开发上也是不甘落后,多以锂电池和为主进行新能源研究。

美国

新能源成果突出,生态安全备受重视

2018NIAN,MEIZHENGFUZAIDALITUIDONGCHUANTONGNENGYUANCHANYEFAZHANDETONGSHI,CHIXUJIADADUITAIYANGNENG、HENENG、DIRENENG、SHENGWUNENGDENGXINNENGYUANLINGYUDEYANFATOURU。

众多新能源领域中,新型电池研发成果引人注目。750次充电/放电循环后仍能正常工作的新型锂空气电池、容量大且寿命长的可充电水基锌电池、靠细菌发电的低成本纸基生物电池等成为电池中的新星。而在提高现有电池性能方面,科学家也取得不少成果。他们将有机太阳能电池的光电转化效率提高至15%,将的容量提高了40%。布朗大学开发的新型反应合金催化剂,在活性和耐久性方面更是超过了能源部2020年车用电催化剂技术指标。

ZAIWEIHUSHENGTAIHUANJINGANQUANFANGMIAN,JINGUANZHENGFUZUIXINQIHOUPINGGUBAOGAOCHENG,QIHOUBIANHUAJIANGJIMEIGUODAILAIDUOZHONGSHANGHAI,DANBINGMEIYOUSHUOFUTELANGPUZONGTONG。KEXUEJIAYIRANBUYIYULIYOUSHUO,BUJINFAWENCHENGMEIMOBIANJINGQIANGHUIYANZHONGWEIHAIDIQUSHENGWUDUOYANGXING,HAIDUIOUZHOUJIANGMUCAIZUOWEIDITANRANLIAODEZHENGCETICHUZHIYI。ZAIJUTIYANJIUFANGMIAN,JIAWANWENSHIXIAOYINGDEZHENGSHI、JINSHUBI“CUIHUAKESUXING”DEFAXIAN、KEZAISHENGKEJIANGJIERUDANBAIBAOZHUANGCAILIAODEKAIFADENGCHENGGUO,DOUCHENGWEIBAOHUQUANQIUSHENGTAIHUANJINGANQUANDEZHUTUIJI。

日本

锂电池负极大容量化,制氢系统投建

DARONGLIANGBULIEHUADELIDIANFUJIYANFACHENGGONG。RIBENCHANYEJISHUZONGHEYANJIUSUOXINKAIFACHULEYIZHONGLILIZIDIANCHISHIYONGDEFUJI,RONGLIANGYUEWEIMUQIANZHULIUDESHIMOFUJI(372mAh/g)DE5BEI,YUYIYANGHUAGUIDELILUNRONGLIANGJIBENYIZHI。XINKAIFADEDIANJIZAIFANFUCHONGFANGDIAN200DUOCIHOU,RONGLIANGYIRANMEIYOUBIANHUA,QUERENJUBEIDARONGLIANG、ZHANGSHOUMINGDETEXING。LIYONGCICIKAIFADEDIANJIYOUWANGTIGAOFUJIDENENGLIANGMIDU,TUIDONGLILIZIERCIDIANCHISHIXIANDARONGLIANGHUAHEXIAOXINGHUA。

世界最大规模利用可再生能源的制氢系统在福岛投建。2018年8月,日本新能源产业技术综合开发机构(NEDO)、东芝能源系统、东北电力及岩谷产业合作,开始在福岛县浪江町建设利用可再生能源制氢的系统“福岛源研究站”,系统装置具备世界最大规模的1万千瓦制氢能力。利用该系统制造的氢预定用于燃料电池发电用途及燃料电池车和燃料电池巴士等交通用途,或者作为工厂的燃料使用。

QINGRANLIAOFADONGJISHIXIANDAGONGLV、GAOREXIAOLV、DIPAIFANG。CHANZONGYANYURIBENGANGSHANDAXUE、DONGJINGDOUSHIDAXUE、ZAODAOTIANDAXUEZUCHENGDEYANJIUXIAOZU,ZAIXIAOXINGFADONGJIDEJICHUSHIYANZHONG,LIYONGQINGRANLIAOYOUYIDERANSHAOTEXINGQUELILEXINDERANSHAOFANGSHI,KAIFACHUQUANQIUSHOUKUANNENGSHIXIANGAOREXIAOLVHEDIDANYANGHUAWU(NOx)DEHUOHUADIANHUOQINGRANLIAOFADONGJI。

DONGHAIHERANLIAOZAICHULISHESHIBAOFEIJIHUAHUOPI。RIBEN“YUANZILIGUIZHIWEIYUANHUI”2018NIAN6YUEPIZHUNLEYOURIBENYUANZILIYANJIUKAIFAJIGOUTIJIAODEDONGHAIHERANLIAOZAICHULISHESHIBAOFEIJIHUA,HAOZI1WANYIRIYUAN,BAOFEISHIZHANGYUJIJIANGCHIXU70NIAN。

俄罗斯

大气治理取得进展,核废料和水处理有新法

大气污染防治方面,俄罗斯国立秋明大学的科研人员研发出液滴悬浮约束方法,并可进行定量液滴有序成团,此项工作可用于大气中污染物扩散机理的研究,制定生态灾难预防性措施;托木斯克理工大学研究人员使用含有3%—10%有机杂质的工业用水和废水,获取了燃料气溶胶,这种气溶胶可用于快速点燃火力发电厂和锅炉房的锅炉,还可用于柴油发电机燃烧室以及汽车

HEFEILIAOCHULIFANGMIAN,EKEXUEYUANYUANDONGFENYUANHUAXUEYANJIUSUOLIANHEEYUANDONGLIANBANGDAXUE,ZHENGZAIYANZHIXINXINGNAMIJIEGOUXIFUFANYINGJI,GAIXIFUJIKEYONGYUJINGHUAEYUANDONGHONGXINGZAOCHUANCHANGNEIDEFANGSHEXINGYETIFEIWU;EXIBOLIYALIANBANGDAXUEDEKEXUEJIACAIYONGKONGHUAJISHU,RANGWEIYUFAHERANLIAOCHUGUANDIBUMISHIDEBURONGXINGCHENJICENGBUDUANSHOUDAOKONGHUA—HUOHUASHUISUANXINGRONGYEQINSHIERBEIPOHUAI,XINJISHUJIANGRONGJIESULVHECHENJIWUHUISHOULIANGTIGAOZHIYUANLAIDE1.5BEI,ZHIBEICHUDEHANFANGSHEXINGHUAXUEFEIWUDESHUINIHUNHEWUQIANGDUSHICHANGGUIFANGFADE2—3BEI。

SHUICHULIFANGMIAN,ESHENGBIDEBAOLIGONGDAXUEDEKEXUEJIASHIYONGGAOTIESUANNATIDAICHUANTONGDELVQIDUIZILAISHUIJINXINGXIAODU,XINSHIJIYONGLIANGXIAO,BUHUIXINGCHENGDUXINGFENJIEWU,HAINENGJIANGYIXIEWEIXIANHUAXUEPINFENJIECHENGDIDUHUAHEWU,TONGSHISHASISHUIZHONGWEISHENGWU;ETUOMUSIKEGONGYEDAXUENENGYUANGONGCHENGXUEYUANYANFACHUYEDIBAOZHAFENSUISHIWUSHUICHULIFANGFA,KEGAOXIAOQUCHUWUSHUIZHONGDEHUAXUEQINSHIXING、DUXINGJIRANLIAOZAZHI,JUYOUGAOXIAO、DINENGHAODETEDIAN,SHIYONGYUHUAGONG、SHIHUA、YEJIN、ZHIJIANGZAOZHIDENGXINGYEDEWUSHUICHULI。

德国

致力解决气候和雾霾问题,开发储存制取氢的新工艺

2018NIANDEGUODAGUIMOQIDONGLETANZHUANHUAXUEXIANGMUYIJIEJUEQIHOUHEWUMAIWENTI,ZHEIGEYOUYINGCHUANGGONGSIHEXIMENZIHEZUODEXIANGMU,NILIYONGRENGONGGUANGHEZUOYONG,JIANGERYANGHUATANHESHUIZHUANHUAWEIYOUYONGHUAXUEWUZHI。ANZHAOJIHUA,DAO2021NIANJIANGZAILUERQUDEMAERHUAXUEGONGYEYUANJIANCHENGYIGEJUDADEHUAXUESHIYANZHUANGZHI,YUJIMEINIANKELIYONGERYANGHUATANSHENGCHAN20000DUNYOUYONGDEHUAXUEPINHERANLIAO。GAIXIANGMUZUIZHONGHUOYIDEBUJINSHIGANGTIEXINGYE,HAIYOUHUAXUEHENENGYUANDENGXINGYE。

DEGUOYOULIXIYANJIUZHONGXINHEAILANGGEN—NIULUNBAODAXUEDEYANJIURENYUANHEZUO,KAIFACHULELIYONGYOUJIZAITIYEHETESHUCUIHUAJI,CHUCUNHEZHIQUQINGRANLIAODEXINGONGYI,KESHIYUANXIANZHUANGXIEQINGRANLIAOSUOXUDELIANGGEZHUANGZHIJIANHUACHENGYIGEZHUANGZHI。ZHEIYIXINGONGYIJIANGLAIYINGYONGYUGONGYEHUACHUQINGHESHENGCHAN,JIANGDADAJIANGDICHENGBENHENENGYUANXIAOHAO,DUINENGYUANZHUANXINGJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。

BULAIMEIDAXUEKUERCEJIAOSHOULINGDAODEYANJIUXIAOZUZHAODAOLEYIZHONGJIEJUEDIXIASHUIXIAOSUANYANWURANDEXINFANGFA,FAXIANYIZHONGHECHENGDEDUOJINSHUYANGSUANYANDUIYUJIANSHAOXIAOSUANYANSHUIWURANYOUTESHUZUOYONG,ZHEIZHONGNAMIJIEGOUWUZHIZAISHUIZHONGDUIXIAOSUANYANHAIYUANQIDIANCUIHUAXIAOGUO。

韩国

建成应对核泄露系统,提高性能

2018NIAN,HANGUOJIANCHENGLEXUNSUYINGDUIHEXIELUDE“HEFUSHEZHUANGKUANGXINXIGONGXIANGXITONG”,ZAIHENENGSHESHIZHOUBIAN29GEDIDIANTANCEFANGSHENENGLIANGXIELUSHUJUBINGXUNSUYINGDUI。

HANGUODAXUECHENGGONGKAIFACHUYIZHONGLIYONGTAIYANGGUANGPUZHONGHONGGUANGBUZHUOERYANGHUATANDEJISHU,NENGGOUJIANGERYANGHUATANZHUANHUANCHENGYIYANGHUATANZHONGJIANWUZHI,CONGERSHENGCHANRANLIAO;CIWAI,HANGUOHAIYANFACHULEFUHEGENGGAOHUANBAOYAOQIUDEQINGQIZHIBEIJISHU。

韩国使用富锂锰氧化物开发了一种兼具高电压、高容量的黏合剂阳极材料,可大幅提高锂二次电池的能量密度;同时,充电速度为现有池5倍、采用石墨烯球正极保护膜和负极材料的锂二次电池也在韩国研发成功。

以色列

注重研发,助力新能源汽车发展

在第6届国际智能机动峰会上,以色列公司展示出水基氢燃料溶液,利用公司的专利催化剂,可以快速从溶液中获取氢气,供给氢产生电能。该溶液具有无毒、化学性质稳定的特点,同时密度高,且便于运输和存储。

YISELIEYANJIURENYUANHAIFAXIANZAITAIYANGNENGDEZUOYONGXIA,GUOYANGHUAQINGZAIYANGHUATIEGOUCHENGDEGUANGDIANJISHANGCHANSHENGGUANGHUAXUEFENLIDEHUAXUEJILI。GAIFAXIANYOUWANGJIANGSHUILIANJIAQIEGAOXIAODIZHUANHUAWEIQINGJIEDEQINGRANLIAO,CUJINQINGRANLIAODIANCHIQUDONGDEQICHEDAGUIMOFAZHAN。

乌克兰

建立环境研究中心,监测研究自然生态

2018NIAN9YUE,WUKELANJIAOKEBU、HUANJINGBU、GUOLIKAERBAQIANDAXUE,YIJIKAERBAQIANSHANGUOJIAGONGYUANLIANHEJIANLILEKAERBAQIANHUANJINGYANJIUZHONGXIN。KAERBAQIANSHANSHIHENGKUAZHONGDONGOUDUOGEGUOJIADEOUZHOUDIERZHANGSHANMAI,MUQIANCUNZAIZHEZHURUDIBIAOSHUITIWURAN、GONGYEHESHENGHUOLAJIWURANDENGHUANJINGWENTI,YIJIZIRANSHENGTAIXITONGTUIHUA、SHENGWUDUOYANGXINGSANGSHI、HONGSHUIHESHANTIHUAPOWEIXIEZENGDADEQUSHI。GAIYANJIUZHONGXINJIANLIHOU,TONGGUOJIANCEHEYANJIUJIANGWEIJIEJUESHANGSHUWENTITIGONGKEXUEYIJUHEJIEJUEFANGAN。